(11) Surgery may be required to correct a serious deformity of the ankle and its bone structure.
An injury, birth defects, or changes throughout the course of life often cause ankle deformities.
Such diseases as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and neuromuscular conditions may cause severe foot and ankle deformities, and these ultimately result in pain and difficulty in walking.
Surgery often includes a procedure that realigns the existing deformity. Various kinds of internal and external fixation devices are often required either temporarily or permanently to maintain the foot or ankle in the appropriate alignment during the healing process.